An Examination Of Effects Of Family Background Characteristics Of Primary School Environment On Girls Achievement In Schooling Process In Nigeria

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An Examination Of Effects Of Family Background Characteristics Of Primary School Environment On Girls Achievement In Schooling Process In Nigeria

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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON AN EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF FAMILY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON GIRLS ACHIEVEMENT IN SCHOOLING PROCESS IN NIGERIA

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  • Name: An Examination Of Effects Of Family Background Characteristics Of Primary School Environment On Girls Achievement In Schooling Process In Nigeria
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [70 KB]
  • Length: [56] Pages

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1 Introduction

This chapter provides introductory information about factors hindering girl’s performance in primary school national examinations. The chapter covers main aspects of the background to the problem, statement of problem, purpose and objective of the study, research questions and significance of the study. In addition, the chapter covers definitions of key terms and concepts, conceptual framework, limitations and delimitations of the study and organization of the study.

1.2 Background to the Problem

Equity is cited as one of the major challenges facing educational development. It is taken to refer the disadvantaged groups including the rural poor, street and working children as well as gender imbalance. Women in Africa have limited access to educational opportunities. Small percentage of girls receives formal education at primary, secondary and post-secondary levels in Africa. In addressing the issues of gender equity in the schooling system in Africa, a number of declarations have been promulgated by the SADC leaders committed themselves to: “Enhancing access to quality education by women and men, and removing gender stereotyping in the curriculum, carrier choices and professions” (Mkuchu, 2004) Prior to independence, access to basic education in Nigeria was dismal, with wide inequities in terms of race, religion and gender. Many primary schools had been established by Christian missionaries. In 1947, <10% of the school-age population was enrolled in primary school. The abolition of primary school fees in 1973 removed that impediment to schooling and Education Act number 25 of 1978 made enrolment and attendance of boys and girls in primary school compulsory. All villages in a Nigeri have at least one primary school and girls make up 49.3% of the student population (Karen, 2003). At the secondary level before independence <1% of the school-age population was enrolled and no females had ever progressed beyond the primary level. Following economic liberalization in 1985, many primary school leavers in Tanzania found no jobs or decent living in the rural areas and were flocking into urban areas but without the requisite knowledge and skills to survive in a liberalized market economy. Their competitiveness in the middle and lower labor market was too low compared to that of their counterparts in neighboring countries. The response to secondary school took chances after that error but really the expansion of secondary level became a priority since 1961. The transition to secondary school is around 20%, but the gender gap is still large, partly due to very low performance of girls in primary school leaving examinations. Still the few who manage to enter these schools face different educational challenges including dropout due to the extreme poverty in both rural and urban communities in Nigeria (Evans, 2002). Since independence in 1961, Nigeria government has strived to reform her education system, changing it from colonial system in order to suit its national interests. Priority was given to primary education in an attempt to make it more adaptive to its environment, and to the needs of the country. There have been several education sector reforms since the first decade after independence (1961-69). The reforms included the 1967 Education for Self-reliance Policy, Musoma Resolution of 1974, Education and Training Policy of 1995, Technical Education and Training Policy of 1996, Science and Technology Policy of 1996, and the National Higher Education Policy of 1999 (URT, 2001). The goal of Education and Training Policy is to ensure quality, access, and equity at all levels of education. (URT, 1995).

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