An Investigation On Factors Influencing Access To Education For Children With Mental Retardation In Nigeria

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An Investigation On Factors Influencing Access To Education For Children With Mental Retardation In Nigeria

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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON AN INVESTIGATION ON FACTORS INFLUENCING ACCESS TO EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN WITH MENTAL RETARDATION IN NIGERIA

The Project File Details

  • Name: An Investigation On Factors Influencing Access To Education For Children With Mental Retardation In Nigeria
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [70 KB]
  • Length: [56] Pages

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter presents theoretical frame work and relates literature reviewed for this study. The conceptual framework of this study is grounded in the functionalist conception of education, while the empirical studies reviewed revolve around the five objectives developed in chapter 1. These include: Assess the factors influencing access to education for children with mental retardation; Influence of teaching and learning materials for pupils with mental retardation; community attitudes towards pupils with mental retardation; influence of quality teachers for teaching pupils with mental retardation; and teachers’ views on managing teaching children with mental retardation. 2.1 Theoretical Literature 2.1.1 Functionalism Theory Functionalism theory is built upon two emphases: application of the scientific method to the objective social world and use of an analogy between the individual ‘organism’ and ‘society’. According to Murphy (n.d), underlying functionalism is the fundamental metaphor of the living organism, its several parts and organs, grouped and organized into a system, the function of the various parts and organs being to sustain the organism, to keep its essential processes going and enable it to reproduce. Similarly, Jarvie (1973) opined that members of a society could be thought of as cells that institute organs whose function is to sustain the life of the entity, despite the frequent death of cells and the production of new ones. Functionalist analyses examine the social significance of phenomena, that is, the purpose they serve a particular society in maintaining the whole. Whawo (1993) cited Hurn and von Bartalanffy (1959), saw society as an open system that maintains equilibrium through a feedback process or that portion of a system’s output that is feedback to the input and affects succeeding outputs and adjusts future conduct by reference to the past. Functionalism investigates both the principles common to all complex entities, and the (usually mathematical) models, which can be used to describe them. Schools are component parts of a system in the society and tend to maintain themselves in a steady state. A steady state occurs when a constant ratio is maintained among the components of the system, given continuous input to the system. A burning candle is often used as an example of a steady state. Upon being lighted, the flame is small, but it rapidly grows to its normal size and maintains the size as long as its candle and its environment exist. It is also self-regulatory; using the above illustration, a sudden drift will cause the flame to flicker, but with the ceasing of the drift, the flame regains its normal characteristics (Whawo, 1993).

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