An Investigation On The Achievement Of Big Results Now In Community Secondary Schools Development In Akwa Ibom State


An Investigation On The Achievement Of Big Results Now In Community Secondary Schools Development In Akwa Ibom State

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LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1       Introduction

The chapter presents the literature review. The literatures presented are related to the study topic under investigation, i.e. the achievement of BRN on community secondary school in Tanzania. The chapter covers: challenges facing education sector, implementation practice of BRN initiatives in the community secondary, factors influencing the implementation of the BRN ways of improving BRN in education

2.2    Challenges facing education sector

According to Nyirenda (2013) the challenges facing the education sector in Tanzania are: Inadequate teachers, teachers’ content and pedagogy competence; Lack of teachers’ motivation; Lack of accountability among teachers; Lack of teaching and learning aids; Lack or inadequate infrastructure; Lack of proper supervision at school level; Monitoring and evaluation, and control of school quality; Lack of effective and efficiency resource utilization; Poor community participation; Evaluation of skills and knowledge; Provision of examination results; Health of students; Electricity and ICT utilization; Curriculum preparation processes; Curriculum content; Teaching and monitoring of curriculum; and Lack of adequate support to slow learning students. In order to rectify the above mentioned challenges, an analysis of the challenges came up with nine strategies which are likely to bring ‘big results’ within a short time of implementation of these strategies.

2.3       Implementation /Practice of BRN initiatives in community secondary schools

The following were the strategies adopted; raising examination pass rate from 43 percent for secondary schools in 2012 to 60 percent in 2013. In addition, pass rates should also rise to 70 percent in 2014 and 80 percent in 2015. Nyirenda (2013) asserted the nine strategies which aim at improving quality of education are: Official school ranking: rank 100 percent of all schools in the annual official school ranking, starting with 2012 Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) and Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE) results; School incentive scheme: reward 4,000 most improved schools every year with monetary and non monetary incentives and recognize top 200 performers, starting with 2013 results. Monetary incentives be between TShs. 1,000,000/= and 5,000,000/= for primary schools and TShs.2, 000,000/= and 10,000,000/= for secondary schools; School improvement toolkit: distribute school improvement toolkit and train 19,000 school heads. This kit aims at supporting school heads to execute their work effectively. It complements the existing guidelines and is focused around a practical advice and simple best practices on school management; National reading, writing and arithmetic (3Rs) assessment: conduct the first national 3 R assessment in Standard Two in October 2013; 3Rs teacher training: train 12,300 Standard One and Two teachers in 3Rs teaching skills; Student Teacher Enrichment Programme (STEP): train 17,000 primary and 8,000 secondary school teachers to support low performing students; Basic facilities construction: construct basic facilities in 1,200 secondary schools; Capitation grants: ensure 100 percent timely delivery of books and materials to all students through alternative funding and monitoring. The Resource mobilization lab aims to provide TShs.158 Billion by 2015 for teaching and learning materials to schools through the “Education Investment Levy”; and Teacher motivation: recognize teachers through non monetary incentives, ensure zero outstanding claims by end of June 2013, and zero unresolved claims not more than three months ahead. The implementation of the above mentioned strategies started since 17th April 2013. There are a number of tasks which have been accomplished including preparations of tool kit, training of teachers, releasing of TShs.26 Billion to start construction whereby 260 contracts have been awarded and payment of teachers’ accumulated claims.BRN for Education sector was publicly inaugurated on 15th August 2013 by Honorable Shukuru Kawambwa, Minister for Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT 2013). During the process of inauguration of BRN, senior education officers took oath pledging to meet targets as set in the education sector through BRN, failure of which they would be held accountable Public inauguration of BRN for education sector was preceded by internal meeting between the MoEVT high officials and Regional and District education officers (REOs and DEOs). During the meeting top officials from MoEVT provided a detailed explanation of BRN and expectations from REOs and DEOs to push forward the implementation of this programme (MoEVT 2013).

2.4       Stakeholders conception regarding BRN  intiatives in community secondary schools

Studies have been conducted globally on teachers’ perceptions of various education issues Komba and Sigala (2015); Makewa, Masinda & Mbuti (2012); Adeyemo (2011); Ifanti (2011); Jekayinfa (2011); Schreiner (2010); Ladd (2009). For example, Ladd (2009) conducted a study on teachers’ perceptions of theory working conditions in the United States of America. The main objective of this study was to examine the extent to which survey based perceptions of working conditions were predictive of policy relevant outcomes, independent of other school characteristics such as the demographic mix of the students. The findings of this study showed that the actual outcome measures helped to highlight both the strengths and weaknesses of using teacher survey data for understanding outcomes of policy interest. However, Ladd’s study was different from the current study because it did not focus on teachers’ perceptions of the government transformation programme in education sector. Moreover, Ifanti (2011) conducted a study on teachers’ perceptions of professionalism and professional development in Greece. The main objective of this study was to explore the notions of teachers’ professionalism and professional development by investigating the views of in service teachers. The findings of this study revealed that the teachers were acquainted with the issues of professionalism and sought to enhance their professional development. Like Ladd’s study, this study did focus on the teachers’ perceptions of the transformation programme in the education sector, which was the focus of the current study.



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