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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON ASSESSING AND COMPARING OF CONSTANT HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST ON DIFFERENT SOIL SAMPLES IN ABAK LOCAL GOVERNMENT
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- Name: Assessing And Comparing Of Constant Head Permeability Test On Different Soil Samples In Abak Local Government
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BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The facility at which a fluid is able to travel through soil pores is referred to as permeability. A material is permeable if it contains continuous voids. Binod Tiwari (2008). All materials such as rocks, soils, concrete, etc. are permeable, the flow of water through all of them obeys approximately the same laws.
The permeability of soils has a decisive effect on the stability of a foundation, seepage loss through embankments of reservoirs, drainage of subgrades, excavation of open cuts in water-bearing sand, rate of flow of water into wells and many others (Mante, 1960).
The permeability of a soil also has a great influence on plant growth since plants obtain their water and nutrients from the soil, plant growing on highly permeable soil may wilt if they are not watered regularly because water passes so rapidly through the soil that there is not enough stored in the soil pores for plant use. Soils of low permeability generally tend to be water-logged and are consequently poorly aerated, plants growing on such soils have enough water but not enough air, therefore they suffocate and die. Frederick (1963).
Apart from agriculture, knowledge of permeability is useful in the solution of problems involving drainage of airports, highways and playing fields, etc., uplift pressure beneath dams and buildings, landslides, seepage through earth dams, dewatering of excavated sites and many other problems (Mante, 1960).
Methods that are common for determining the coefficient of permeability can be classified under laboratory and field methods, but for the sake of this research, laboratory methods shall be considered. These are:
- Constant Head Permeability and
- Falling Head Permeability methods.
The various types of apparatus which are used in soil laboratories for determining the coefficients of permeability of soils are called permeameter. Apparatus used for the Constant Head Permeability Test is called a Constant Head permeameter and the one used for the Falling Head Test is a Falling Head permeameter (Murthy, 2005). The Constant Head Permeability test is more suited for coarse grained soils such as gravelly sand and coarse medium sand.
Permeability of soil controls the rate at which saturated soils undergo compression below foundations under external loads. Knowledge of permeability of soil is required in determining the discharge or yield designing of the well and hydraulic structures and through earth dams. Permeability is also required in designing filters used to prevent piping failure in earth dams, it also controls the stability of hydraulic structures.
Soils are characterized by swelling, depressions and lateral movement in the presence of water even under moderate wheel loads (Obeahon, 1993). Civil engineering practice and construction works in Nigeria depend greatly upon very large extent of good road networks.