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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL EFFICIENCIES OF BROILER AND EGG PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES IN BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA
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- Name: Comparative Analysis Of Technical Efficiencies Of Broiler And Egg Production Enterprises In Bayelsa State, Nigeria
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1.1 Background of the Study
The livestock industry is very important in the Nigerian economy because it provides a good source of animal protein such as meat, milk and egg that are rich in the essential amino acids required for body functions (Adepoju, 2008).The industry, according to Okunmadewa (1999) provides raw materials such as wool, hides and skin for the development of local industries using them to produce items such as clothing, shoes, jackets and rugs for human use. Animal protein is important in the human diet for growth, maintenance and repair of body tissues, maintaining the water balance of the body tissues and for formation of hormones and emzymes(Tanko & Aji, 2014).
Poultry is a collective term for all avian species nutritionally and economically useful to man (Okoli, 2006). The most important poultry species remains the domestic fowl commonly called chicken not only because of its universal availability but also because it provides important highly relished human foods (Tanko & Aji, 2014). The other domestic avian species classed under poultry include turkey, duck, guinea fowl, goose and pigeon.
However, with continued population growth, urbanization, income growth, changes in life styles and food preferences, it was projected that meats and egg demand in the developing world will double between 1995 and 2020 to 190 million tons and increase by 25 percent in developing countries to 122 million tonnes (Delgado, Rosengrat, Steinfeld & Courbois, 1999). Demand for meat will grow faster than cereals in the developing world by 2.8 percent per year compared with 1.8 percent for cereals (Pinshup, Pandya & Rosegrant, 1997).
The problems of food insecurity and hunger in recent years have continued to attract the attention of experts and Governments worldwide (Babatunde, Omotosho & Sholotan, 2007).
Several conferences and world food summits on human nutrition have brought back to centre-stage for debate the issue of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, (Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), 2003). FAO (1995) also asserted that the most critical in the global food basket crisis is protein, especially of animal origin. The poultry industry represents the fastest and most economic means of bridging the animal protein shortage gap (Olufemi &Adeolu , 2013). FAO (1998) puts the current average level of animal protein consumption in Nigeria at 15g/head/day, which is grossly below the FAO recommended level of 35g/head/day.
According to Chukwuji, Inoni, Ogisi and Oyaide (2006), poultry production is attractive because, birds are able to adapt easily, have high economic value, rapid generation time and high rate of productivity that can result in production of meat within eight weeks and first egg within 18 weeks of first chick being hatched. They further stressed that poultry is an important source of animal protein, income, employment, industrial raw materials, manure, financial security etc. Poultry production has indeed become a leader in the livestock industry both in advanced management and technology.
The poultry industry in Nigeria has under gone a significant transformation since the early fifties from a backyard, peanut and primitive house hold-oriented husbandry to modern and large-scale poultry which can be found in the country side and urban centres today. Though the value of livestock resources have grown in absolute terms in recent years, its overall contributions to Agricultural output remains dismally low, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, 2006).