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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON DETERMINANTS OF FARMERS’ PERCEPTION TO INVEST IN SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE NORTH-WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF ETHIOPIA
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- Name: Determinants Of Farmers’ Perception To Invest In Soil And Water Conservation Technologies In The North-Western Highlands Of Ethiopia
- Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
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Soil is one of fundamental natural resources to support life on earth. Soil is finite and non-renewable natural resource which takes between 200 and 1000 years for 2.5 cm of topsoil formation under cropland condition (Pimentel et al., 1995). As a core component of land resources, soil is the source of many ecosystem services essential to humans and the environment (Brevik et al., 2015). It is the base to support primary production through organic matter and nutrient cycling, control of pests and diseases; decontamination of the environment, and provision of ecosystem services (UNCCD, 2013). Soil also plays a major role in global climate processes through regulation of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) emissions (FAO & ITPS, 2015). With these and other infinite significances, soil need to be protected in sustainable manner. Global estimates, however, indicate that human pressures on soil resources are reaching critical limits (FAO & ITPS, 2015) and soil is becoming vulnerable to various forms of depletions, such as soil erosion, soil fertility decline, and associated changes in soil physical and chemical properties. Soil erosion by water is the most severe and widespread that occupies 56% (Gelagay & Minale, 2016) or 1094 million hectares of the world’s total land area (Walling & Fang, 2003).
Agriculture in Ethiopia is the foundation of the country’s economy accounting more than 50% of gross domestic product (GDP), 84% of national export and 80% of total employment. However, recently, there is increasing concern that soil erosion seriously limits agricultural sustainability in Ethiopia (Adimassu, Kessler, Yirga, & Stroosnijder (2013), Engdawork and Bork, 2014, Gelagay and Minale, 2016, Gessesse et al., 2015, Kidane, Beshah, & Aklilu (2014), Tesfahunegn, Vlek, & Tamene (2012), Teshome, de Graaff, & Kassie (2016)). Soil erosion, principally caused by over grazing, continuous cultivation, deforestation and remove of crop residue from the field, highly undermines the role of agriculture to alleviate poverty and food insecurity in whole parts of Ethiopia. The estimated annual soil loss in Ethiopia due to erosion is 1.5 billion tons, of which 50% occurs in cropland (Assefa & Bork, 2015). This is very serious problem compared to the estimated soil formation rate of less than 2 t/ha/year (Hurni, 1983). Its severity is being pronounced in the Northern highland areas of the country (Abate, 2011, Balana, Mathijs, & Muys (2010)) which has been characterized by steep slopes, intensive rainfall, sparse vegetation, high population and livestock densities (Kidane, 2016).