Factors Affecting the Effective Implementation of Continuous Assessment

Factors Affecting the Effective Implementation of Continuous Assessment

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Project Topic and Material on Factors Affecting the Effective Implementation of Continuous Assessment

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This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of continuous assessment. The instruments used were questionnaire. This work is aimed at the possible solution in solving the problems militating against continuous assessment in schools. To achieve the laid down objective the researcher carried out an investigation by designing a well structured questionnaires for 100 respondents in the selected secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State. The data generate were interpreted, using simple percentage analysis. The data findings revealed that students who were continuously assessed performed better than those who were not continuously assessed. It was also discovered that continuous assessment can lead to eradication of examination misconduct among students, while lack of it results in upbringing students into the practice of examination misconduct. Based on findings, it was recommended that government should put off the spirit of lackadaisical in education, instead they should be sending qualified teachers to schools. Also proper and effective records should be kept in school on each students performance. laconically, it was equally suggested that inspector should be assigned the task of checking school records on continuous assessment to ensure that these are properly kept in all schools.


Chapter One


Background of the study

Research question

Purpose of study

Significance of the study

Scope of study

Limitation of the study

Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

Chapter Three



Research instrument




Data analysis

Chapter Four

Result on observation and discussion of results

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

Suggestion for further research






Continuous Assessment process is an important component of the National Policy on Education (FME, 2004). This system of assessment and evaluation is an innovation in the Nigerian educational system which has its genesis from the first national curriculum conference held in Ibadan in 1969. The outcome of that historic conference were published, a high powered committee consisting of educationist, university academics, civil servants, industrialist and intellectuals from various works of life was set up to study the report in depth and present recommendations based on its formulation into a New National Policy on Education (FME, 2004).

In 1977, an implementation task force was set up to prepare a blue print for the implementation of the new policy. Input into the Federal Task came from various state task forces set up for the purpose. The Federal Government White Paper on the implementation task force came out in 1979 and constitutes the basis of what is now the new National Policy on Education (FME, 2004). One of the distinct features of the new National Policy on Education is its emphasis on Continuous Assessment. According to an extract from the National Policy on Education (FME, 1998).

“Educational assessment and evaluation will be liberalized by basing them in whole or in parts on Continuous Assessment of the progress of the individual.” The clearest statement as to how the desired ‘liberalization’ was to be achieved was stated in the National Policy on Education. And the type of education that will bring about self realization, better human relationship, national consciousness and technological progress in Nigeria (FME, 2004).

The new National Policy on Education in Nigeria has directed that Continuous Assessment should be used at all educational levels for the evaluation of student achievement. This means that every teacher from primary school to university should understand and practice it. Before the implementation of Continuous Assessment, the summative system of assessment was used where students will be assessed at the end of the term without including any other form of assessment, and this form of assessment is used to evaluate students achievement for placement and promotions to upper class. Mock examination was conducted prior to WAEC examinations. This result was often used to determine those students that qualify to write the final examination (WAEC) and also to secure provisional admission into higher institution before the release of WAEC result (Ango, 2007).

Carew (12005), stated that irrespective of how well a student’s performance is during his/her years of schooling, if his/her performance in the summative type of examination is not good, he/she is considered incapable of advancing further in education. Dodo (2005) maintained that “there are even few cases of suicide from failure in final examination”. In view of the above reasons, schools and colleges adopted the Continuous Assessment system. The Federal Government of Nigeria stressed the need and importance of Continuous Assessment in relation to examination. It was stated in the National Policy on Education (FME, 1998) that there is the need for Continuous Assessment for the integration of all types of evaluations. Continuous Assessment therefore, represents a continuing awareness of the development of the pupil over a period of time and the general building of cumulative judgment. Continuous Assessment also referred to as “process evaluation” does not only measure advancement but also indicates the progress towards it. In science, especially chemistry, assessments should seek to measure the particular qualities that a curriculum or course seeks to foster in students. In the context of science (chemistry), such qualities may be divided into three broad categories outlined below according to Richard (2009):-

1. Intellectual abilities and skills that include the student’s ability to recall, apply, evaluate scientific information and to plan and device experimental investigations for the solution of scientific problems frequently. Abilities of this nature are referred to as cognitive abilities.

2. Manipulative skills and abilities that include skills in the handling and manipulation of materials and apparatus in the context of scientific investigations, as well as ability to follow instructions and to make accurate observations. Generally these and related skills are referred to as psychomotor skills.

3. Qualities that concerns students attitude and interest in science and the study of science and science related beliefs and values, as well as ethical judgments and interpersonal relationships. Qualities of this nature are generally referred to as affective characteristics: The influence of gender on the learning ability, interest and achievement of students cannot be overemphasized. Results of several researches conducted over the years revealed that there is significant difference in students’ choice of subject as well as their performance in science and non-science subjects.

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Adeqive (2000) attributes difference in learning ability of boys and girls to socialization process as girls are denied out of school and pre-school experience in problem solving especially those involving visual activity behaviour that inhibits the development of mathematics and science capability in girls. This research therefore, intends to provide equal opportunities for both boys and girls in the teaching and conduct of Continuous Assessment.

Academic achievement in science (Chemistry) is viewed in different ways by different authors; depending on the context in which it is viewed. Generally, achievements means accomplishment or exhibition of proficiency in a given skill or body of knowledge. Amuset (2004) viewed academic achievement as the knowledge obtained or skill developed in the school subject usually designated by test score or by means assigned by the teacher.


According to the federal ministry of education (1980) handwork, continuous assessment may be viewed as a method of finding out what the pupils have gained from learning experiences in respect of knowledge, thinking, reasoning, character development etc. continuous assessment is systematic, comprehensive, cumulative and guidance oriented and requires a variety of evaluation strategies to deal with all domains of learning. The problem to be investigated in this research is to determine the implementation of continuous assessment in the promotion of learners in secondary schools. This new evaluation technique is thus designed to systematically cover all of the student’s performances in class test, home assignment, project, interviews and other school activities, weekly, monthly or periodically throughout their entire duration of the student’s course.

This study is therefore aimed at answering the following questions:

1.           What is the effectiveness of continuous assessment in student’s performances?

2.           What are the advantages of continuous assessment?

3.           Is continuous assessment successful in promotion of learners in secondary schools?

4.           Are educators adequately equipped for the effective implementation of continuous assessment

5.           What are the problems militating against the use of continuous assessment in assessing students.


This study was designed to find out the effectiveness of continuous assessment in the evaluation of students academic performance in schools. This study also aim to pursue an investigation into the role of continuous assessment is to assess all aspect of a learners development, for the purpose of the empirical investigation of a self-structured questionnaires, to be completed by secondary school educations was utilized.

The information obtained by continuous assessment should be of such a nature and be available at a time, that will enable the learner to grow. Effective continuous assessment should involve the continuous updating of assessment of performance of a learner. There are different methods that can employed in continuous assessment and different ways in which they can be used. In order to improve assessment and ensure the best feedback from it, the4 educators need to find the method which best fits the purpose of continuous assessment is to assess all aspect of a learners development. The aims of this study are:

  1. To pursue a study of relevant literature in order to determine the effectiveness of continuous assessment in schools.
  2. To undertake an empirical investigation to establish the effectiveness of continuous assessment in secondary schools.
  3. To formulate certain recommendations based on the findings from the research.


This study will be of great significance to the government, the ministry of education and educational policy makers as it will enable them take decision on the effectiveness of the continuous assessment method of education. Researchers and students teachers, will benefit from this work, in that it will serve as a source of relevant information concerning continuous assessment.

This study also helps the “Layman” to understand the reason for the present inclusion of continuous assessment in the 6-3-3-4 systems. The purpose of continuous assessment is to monitor a learners progress through an area made about the best way to facilitate further learning in terms of expected knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values. This purpose is not all about promotion pass, fail, and traditional transfer but about progression.


This study is aimed at answering the following research questions:

  1. Does continuous assessment have any effect on the performance of students in secondary schools?
  2. Does continuous assessment helps in the promotion of learners in class?
  3. What advantage does continuous assessment have on students academic performance in Ugha Grammar School?
  4. Do students do well in class when assess then when they are not assess
  5. What is the difference in performance between students in continuous assessment?
  6. Does continuous assessment reduce examination misconduct


This study will cover the effectiveness of continuous assessment in schools in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area of Edo State, Ugha Grammar School as a special target. This study involves both the male and female students in this above mentioned school, its also involved all the teachers in the schools.

This scope of the study is to known as a researcher the way and manner the students are promoted, when this new policy of evaluation is given by the teachers. This study covers a wide range of all the students in Ugha Grammar School. The delimitation of this research:

  1. The research was confined to only one aim in Ugha Obagie mixed secondary school in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area.
  2. The sample were not limited to some group of students and were not to discuss about a particular sex, class, or grade in school but permitted to know the assessment of all the students in Ugha Grammar School in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area of Edo State.


Continuous assessment: This is a mechanism, whereby the final grading of students in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain of behaviour takes account in a systematic way of all his performance during a given period of schooling.

Assessment: The terms assessment refers to the methods of measures employed to determine an individual status or behaviour or how much of a certain trait an individual possesses.

Evaluation: Is a process where in the parts of processes or outcomes of a programme are examined to see if they are satisfactory.

Cognitive domain: This is concerned mainly with the mental process by which knowledge id acquired. The cognitive domain deals with the recognition and recall of knowledge and the development of intellectual skills and abilities.

Affective domain: This has to do with values and beliefs, attitudes and appreciation, interest, social relations, emotional adjustment, habits and life style.

Psychomotor domain: This deal with manipulative skills and body movement, example of this is writing smoothly and legibly drawing accurate maps or diagrams etc.


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