Gender Disparity In Agricultural Credit Facilities Or Inputs Distribution

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Gender Disparity In Agricultural Credit Facilities Or Inputs Distribution

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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON GENDER DISPARITY IN AGRICULTURAL CREDIT FACILITIES OR INPUTS DISTRIBUTION

The Project File Details                      

  • Name: Gender Disparity In Agricultural Credit Facilities Or Inputs Distribution
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [70 KB]
  • Length: [56] Pages

 

 

Chapter one

Introduction

1.1Background of the study

Women’s contribution to economic development is hard to over-emphasize. In the agricultural sector of many developing countries, they represent the main driving force and spend considerable amount of time planting, weeding, ridging, and harvesting, while simultaneously doing their regular chores.

Two key features are prevalent in the Agricultural sector in Nigeria. The first one is the dominance of female labor in agriculture and the second one is the existence of a gender gap in agricultural productivity. The feminization of agriculture is evident in Nigeria, where women make up a higher proportion of agricultural labor than males, potentially ranging from 30 to 80 percent (UNECA 1982, FAO 1984, Doss 2011, Doss et al. 2011). Nevertheless, labor conditions in the rural sector are disadvantageous for women. The presence of gender differences in the rural sector is not surprising in the context of Malawi. In a 2004 survey, rural wages were 35% lower for females than males. Furthermore, around 89% of 3 employed women are engaged in part time off-farm activities, in contrast to 67% for male. Women participating in rural wage employment tended to be concentrated in lower skill activities- about 61.4 % – in contrast to the corresponding figure of 37% for males (Hertz et al. 2009).

The gender differentials in agricultural productivity range from 4 to 40 percent conditional on the country, the representativeness of the data, the type of crop, and the composition of households among other variables (Akresh, 2005; Alene et al., 2008; Gilbert et al., 2002; Goldstein and Udry, 2008; Moock 1976; Peterman et al., 2011; Oladeebo and Fajuyigbe, 2007; Quisumbing et al., 2001; Saito et al., 1994; Tiruneh et al., 2001; Udry, 1996; Vargas Hill and Vigneri, 2011). The disparity of large participation of women in agriculture, and the significant gender gap in agricultural productivity are the prime motivations for this study. The implications of both characteristics are that the agricultural sector may lag behind its potential in terms of productivity, and that a gender dimension exists within the issue at hand. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying reasons behind the differences in agricultural productivity between female and male farmers.

Several key reasons for the observed gender gap in agricultural productivity have been identified in the literature: gender differences in (i) access and use of agricultural inputs, (ii) tenure security and related investments in land and improved technologies, (iii) market and credit access, (iv) human and physical capital, and (v) informal and institutional constraints affecting farm/plot management and marketing of agricultural produce (Peterman et al. 2011). Cultural roles that are assigned to males and females regarding domestic duties as well as other factors that may underlie the gender segregation in crop production (i.e. staple vs. cash crop cultivation, high-yielding vs. low-yielding variety cultivation, etc.) could be thought of as informal institutional constraints

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