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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON IDENTIFICATION OF A POTENTIAL ISR DETERMINANT FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PM12 AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT IN TOMATO
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- Name: Identification Of A Potential Isr Determinant From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pm12 Against Fusarium Wilt In Tomato
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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a member of family Solanaceae, cultivated worldwide, ranked first among the processing crops and second as a vegetable crop. In Pakistan it is cultivated on about 58.196 thousand hectares with an annual production of 574.052 thousand tons (FAO, 2013). It contains valuable nutrients like vitamin A and C, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium (United States Department of Agriculture [USDA], 2009). It is also a source of an antioxidant compound named lycopene that has been found helpful against cancer (Miller et al., 2002). Tomato wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) W.C. Snyder et H.N. Hansen (FOL) is an alarming disease, causing yield losses up to 25% (Fravel et al., 2005; Park et al., 2013). Disease control strategies include use of resistant tomato varieties with cultural, chemical and biological control (Agrios, 2005; Pottorf, 2006). Cultural control lost its effectiveness as pathogen has a wide host range. Use of resistant varieties is futile due to chances of mutation in Fusarium spp. Chemical control is now losing its ground due to adverse effects of chemicals on environment and soil microbiota that calls for alternative inputs with lower dependency on chemicals for sustainable agriculture (Lucas, 2011). Recently used biological control employed induced systemic resistance (ISR) mechanism using rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria against fungal pathogens (Pieterse et al., 2014).
Plants are devoid of an immune system which is the chief characteristic of mammals. To deal with different types of pathogens, plants have weakly inducible or constitutive defense systems including plant cell walls, cuticles, phytoanticipins (Underwood, 2012; Newman et al., 2013) and inducible defenses in which plants activate their immune system by the stimulus of signal molecules known as elicitors (Henry et al., 2012; Maffei et al., 2012; Newman et al., 2013). Elicitors can be derived from natural/living organisms like plants and microbes or generated synthetically (Walters et al., 2013).
Plant pathogens stimulate the host plant to activate defense responses against the invaders but this weak defense reaction will not limit the spread of the pathogen into the host plant (Thordal-Christensen, 2003). However, the defense responses can be enhanced by triggering the plant before pathogen attack. Interaction of some rhizobacteria with the plant roots has proven to increase plant resistance against some pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses. This phenomenon is termed as ISR (Lugtenberg and Kamilova, 2009). Application of microorganisms to control diseases, which is a form of biological control, is an environment-friendly approach (Lugtenberg and Kamilova, 2009). The direct mechanism of PGPR in biocontrol involves antagonism to soil borne pathogens (Supplementary Data Sheet 1) and indirect mechanism depends on induction of systemic resistance (Choudhary, 2011; Glick, 2012). Generally competition for nutrients, niche exclusion, ISR and antifungal metabolites production are some of the chief modes of biocontrol activity in PGPR (Lugtenberg and Kamilova, 2009). Many rhizobacteria have been reported to produce antifungal metabolites like hydrogen cyanide (HCN), phenazines, pyrrolnitrin, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, viscosinamide, and tensin (Bhattacharyya and Jha, 2012). In 2009, De Vleesschauwer and Höfte (2009) coined the term ISR for resistance induced by PGPR which was found to be independent of the pathway involved.